What is a human being? What are its capacities that make it so? This of course has a potential implication in the matter of abortion. Nowadays in different countries, or in the US States, different views apply. Some take the view that humanity happens at conception, others choose the time at which the heart starts to beat, and others take it to be at birth.
I, as a born Catholic, find it straightforward: from the moment of conception, there is a living entity created by the Almighty — a human being who will continue to the end of life (and thereafter). But, if I had no religious beliefs, how would I argue?
Perhaps, I would hold that all the human characteristics, such as free will, morality and love, are the outcome of evolution. They give us the facilities for benefitting the human race which, as a result, grows and spreads through its control for existence. Yes, it is necessary, for our race, to protect the choices of human beings throughout life. But there is no reason why a baby in the womb should grow to birth against the wishes of its mother.
This leads me to understand why many people, who do not share my religious beliefs, accept the use of abortion as a benefit in a wide range of circumstances.
So, how would you argue against abortion without a reference to God or to religious teaching?
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Discussion examining when a baby in the womb become a human being. https://geneticliteracyproject.org/2022/01/21/determining-when-life-biologically-begins-is-too-fuzzy-to-give-clarity-to-the-abortion-debate/?mc_cid=2d6fd207d5&mc_eid=877633983d